Question Answer
describe democrats *liberal
*raise taxes on rich
describe liberals progressive
what was prohibited to the states in terms of service in the national office couldn't impose religion
what are 3 main differences of the madisonian system today 1. direct senate voting
2. parties choose electoral college
3. more democratic
what was the constitution able to limit in terms of slavery importing slaves
who had power in MA elites
what are natural rights that people deserve certain human rights (life, liberty, property)
what is the primary purpose of gov't protection of personal property
how was life for whites @ time of american revolution good, felt very independent (self governed)
what states came to the constitutional convention (12 – RI)
what was the nj plan each state equally represented (like AOC: no pres/ no court)
what was the vg plan state representation based on population
who's the president/ his party donald trump/ republican
what are some intolerable acts *stamp act
*tea act
*sugar tax
*quartering of soldiers
describe the structure of the DOI mainly about king's abuse of the colonists
why did britain tax the colonists so colonists could contribute to the cost of defending territory won in the french/ indian war
describe the delegates at the constitutional convention *55
*elite, successful, urbanites
*planters, lawyers, merchants
*college degree
*white male
what were the 3 main economic issues at the convention 1. states had tariffs on other states
2. paper $ was worthless
3. congress had trouble raising $
who was the original writer of the constitution john adams
describe conservatives traditional views
who often changed his mind about issues james madison
who were the rules of voting left to the states
what is habeas corpus must tell detainees their crime
how were slaves counted for HOR/ tax 3/5
what was a main reason of the constitution's success *kept secret
*led by young educated people
what is a bill of attainder punishment without trial
who were the anti-federalists opponents of the constitution (middle class who enjoyed their new state power)
under the constitution, what did the gov't have to pay $54 million in public debt
what was a result of the colonists' development of individualism tried to move west
what are the 3 branches of gov't at each level 1. judicial: city court, state court, supreme court
2. legislative: city council, state legislature, HOR/ senate
3. executive: mayor, governor, president
what is the revolutionary war a parallel to vietnam war
who were federalists in support of the constitution
what were the 2 conflicting views at the constitutional convention self interest or everyone's interest
what were the AF's opinion of the constitution *took away freedoms *no list of rights
who is arguably the most important federalist washington
describe republicans *anti-federalists
*lower taxes
*small gov't (state power)
what was the annapolis meeting about and what did it lead to response to shay's rebellion, constitutional convention with all states in philadelphia 1787
what did paine's common sense lead to revolution/ independence
what were hobbes's views *people are naturally selfish and need gov't *power should be absolute
what was the connecticut compromise 2 houses (senate with nj plan and HOR with vg plan)
what was congress's main economic power regulate commerce
describe the 2 main purposes of the madisonian system 1. share power among institutions 2. checks/ balances
what was the federal system divided power between state/ national gov't (check on national gov't)
what were the federalist papers and who wrote them supported constitution; madison, jay, hamilton
what was a new idea regarding natural rights trial by jury
which 2 men were AF jefferson/ madison
what was the issue with the aoc went overboard on avoiding strong central gov't
describe james madison not wealthy nor great orator
what is separation of powers 3 branches
why were the elite threatened wanted to control gov't
what 2 things were the DOI considered to be philosophy/ political letter
who did the connecticut compromise give the most power to smaller states (especially in senate)
what is the end of the beginning ratification
what was the madisonian system's goal limit majority control
when was the first continental congress september 1774
why were colonists mad about tax had no representation in parliament
what is a main reason that the US won the war britain lost interest/ gave up
what did the bill of rights do to the constitution weaken it
who is the mayor of mandeville/ his political party villere/ republican
describe shays rebellion 1786, armed attacks on MA courthouse to prevent judges from foreclosing farms
what is the main cause of political conflict distribution of $ (majority could take over and take minority's wealth)
who were the framers afraid of majority
what did the 3 branches/ sep of powers lead to gridlock (work through issues slowly but carefully)
what is the american revolution considered conservative (colonists were comfortable)
what are the 3 levels of gov't / their responsibilities 1. national-nationwide security/ defense/ policy
2. state- drivers licenses/ marriages
3. local-roads/ property
who were the middle class lax on debtors
what did elites do in response to shay's rebellion formed private militia
who mainly advocated for minority rights james madison
what were the 1st and 2nd constitutional conventions ab 1st- response to intolerable acts
2nd- revolt or reconcile?
how many states approved the constitution 10
why was washington a federalist? hamilton? washington- wanted strong military
hamilton- strong economy
who is the la gov/ his political party john bel edwards/ democrat
who chooses the electoral college today political parties
why did people not want to revolt doubted military/ had family in england
what does the federal system have 2 of levels
what is the AOC called league of friendship
describe thomas jefferson *33 y/o
*great writer/ reader
*main author of DOI
what did the 17th amendment do lead to direct senate election in 1913
what was a main reason that the DOI was a polemic to plead to france for $/ military aid
what is checks/ balances branches have to check actions of other branches to balance power and lead to slower policymaking
what did the states' enactment of democracy lead to powerful middle class of farmers/ artisans
what are the 3 branches of gov't/ their responsibilities? 1. judicial- interpret laws
2. executive- enforce laws
3. legislative- make laws
which men were federalists madison, jay, hamilton
what did the post war recession lead to AOC
how would trump's base be defined? what is the exception to this? antifederalists; want more power in central gov't
what should the nature of gov't be power against power (james madison)
what is policymaking designed to be inefficent
who are the la senators/ their political party 1. kennedy- republican
2. cassidy- republican
why could slavery not be outlawed too much oppositon
who is the la representative/ their political party scalise/ republican
how did the constitution deal with slavery/ voting finessed it (dealt with it subtly)
what is john locke's book and what is it about 2nd treatise of civil gov't; natural rights and a gov't built on consent, no divine right of king, have to give up some rights for greater good
what was the colonists' opposition to mercantilism had to create products, ship them back to england, and buy them for a higher price
what 2 philosophers had views debated at the constitutional convention hobbes/ locke
what quality of james madison led to the ratification of the constitution moderate views
what does the madisonian system encourage moderation, compromise, slow change
what happened after the colonists sent a letter to the king asking for rights king declared war which led to 2nd constitutional convention
what are the main ideas of the AOC state power, 1 legistlature, no central gov't/ courts/ taxes/ executive branch/ trade
what type of gov't did the framers create and why republic; direct democracy not feasible
what are ex post facto laws can't punish for an act that wasn't illegal when commited
what is federalism way of organizing a nation so that 2 or more levels of gov't share formal authority over the same area/ people
what is a unitary gov't a central gov't holds supreme power in a nation (most national gov'ts)
who acts as a unitary gov't in the USA states
what is a confederation national gov't is weak and most power is in states
what party wants a confederation tea party
what are intergovernmental relations the entire set of interactions among national , state, and local gov'ts including regulations, transfer of funds, and the sharing of info that constitutes working of federal system
why didn't the framers create a unitary gov't too large country in both area/ population
what is an example of intergovernmental regulations grants
what type of ORGANIZATION does the united states use intergovernmental organization
did states have no powers after federalism no
could you amend the AOC no
what are some state responsibilites *ratify amendments
*organize local gov't
*state/ national elections
what does the constitution guarantee for states *equal representation in senate
*protection against violence
*can't divide states
*can't tax state exports
what are some powers prohibited to states *tax importants/ exports
*coin money
*permit slavery
*impose poll tax
*declare war
what is the supremacy clause clause in article VI of the constitution that makes the constitution, national laws, and treaties supreme over state laws as long as the national gov't is acting within constitutional limit
what 2 events have strengthened the supremacy clause civil war/ 1960s desegregation
when do the national/ state gov't overlap courts/ taxes
what are some issues that there is debate about which level of gov't should handle *abortion
*speed limits
*child labor
*min. wage
what was the civil war also a struggle between national/ state gov't
what is the 10th amendment power not delegated to US by constitution or prohibited by it to the states is reserved to the state
what are the main taxes of each gov't level federal- income
state- sales
when was the main civil rights bill 1964
what did the 11th amendment do gave more state power
who was the gov of alabama in the 1960s and what was he known for wallace; blocking entrance to U of A but also being a flip-flopper
what was mculloch vs. maryland (generally) 1819 supreme court decision that established the supremacy of the national gov't over state gov't
who did m vs. m involve and who won the bank (national gov't) vs. the state; the national gov't
what was arizona et al. v US national gov't tried to stop arizona police officers from pulling over those of hispanic descent for no reason
what did trump say in regards to the arizona case to pardon the offensive police officer
what is the elastic clause "necessary and proper", final paragraph of article i section 8 that gives implied powers to congress
what are implied powers powers of the federal gov't that go beyond those enumerated in the constitution
what are enumerated powers powers of federal gov't listed explicitly in the constitution
what is an example of an implied power vs. an enumerated power airforce/ army & navy
what historical figure was in support of commerce hamilton
what was gibbons vs. ogden lanmark case in 1824 in which the supreme court interpreted the elastic clause broadly and gave congress the power to regulate interstate commerce
what does commerce encompass all forms of commercial activity
what is expansion and retraction when the gov't lowers the interest rate to expand the economy (when few people are investing) or raise the interest rate to slow it (when lots of investments/ inflation)
what has congress used interstate commerce power to regulate in the past *safe working conditions
*child labor laws
what is full faith and credit clause that requires states to recognize public acts, records, and judicial proceedings in other states
what is extradition legal process whereby a state surrenders a person charged with a crime to the state in which the crime was committed
when was extradition a problem under the AOC
what are privileges and immunities the provision of the constitution according citizens of each state the privileges of citizens of any state
what has full faith and credit caused controversy with same sex marriage
what was the defense of marriage act allowed states to disregard same sex marriage from 1996-2013wh
what are exceptions to privileges and immunities state university tuitions, state elections, taxes
what is dual federalism system of gov't in which the states and national gov't each remain supreme within their own spheres, each with different powers
when was dual federalism used pre-new deal
what is dual federalism considered to be a layer cake
what is cooperative federalism a system of gov't in which the states and national gov't share policy assignments and power
what is cooperative federalism considered to be marble cake (responsibilities of state/ national gov't are blurred)
when was cooperative federalism used post new deal / during new deal (infrastructure)
what is most $ spent on in cooperative federalism what the national gov't says
is dual federalism federalist no, must more strict and similar to the AOC
how do highways show movement towards cooperative federalism earlier eras had cities/ states largely responsible for building roads, but in 1956 congress initiated building of interstates and would pay for most costs if the state enforced the legal drinking age
what do federal grants often come with conditions beneficial to the national gov't that the states must follow in order to receive the money
what is devolution transferring responsibility for policies from the federal gov't to the state/ local gov't ; return to dual federalism
do democrats support devolution no
do republicans theoretically support devolution yes
when did the republicans gain control of congress 1994
what did republicans initially do when they gained control of congress repeal federal speed limits and give states more welfare leeway
what did republicans find was the most practical approach to achieve their goals restrict state power and give power to federal gov't
what are other examples of modern day cooperative federalism public schools/ highways
what president loosened federal regulations reagan
when were democrats completely in control of the gov't 1932-68
which 2 presidents grew federal debt reagan/ bush
what is fiscal federalism grants in aid: federal funds appropriated by congress for distribution to state/ local gov'ts are used as instruments for the national gov't to aid/ influence states and localities
what are grants in aid revenue from federal taxes sent to state/ local gov'ts
what are categorical grants only used for specific purposes
what are crossover sanctions using federal dollars in one program to influence state/ local policy in another
what are crosscutting requirements when a condition on one federal grant is extended to all activities supported by federal funds
what do most crosscutting requirements coincide with civil rights act of 1964/ affirmative action
what are 2 types of categorical grants and which are more common project grants/ formula grants; project grants
what are project grants awarded on basis of competition mainly to colleges
what are formula grants distributed according to formulas of population
what are 2 examples of formula grants medicaid/ social security
what led to block grants complaints about excessive paperwork/ too many strings attached to categorical grants
what are block grants given more or less automatically to states/ communities to support broad programs
how are block grants often described liberal
what is there a scramble for federal $ for states
what do mandates often have unrealistic targets
what is an example of a mandate no child left behind focused on below average students yet didn't provide resources and threatened to cut school funding if no improvements
what are mandates requirements that direct states or local gov'ts to provide additional services under threat of penalties or as a condition of receiving a federal grant
why do states sometimes not want to receive aid from federal gov't means they will have to budget more money due to mandates
what often puts states in a bind combination of federal regulations/ inadequate resources
what does federalism provide for in terms of public opinion more diversity
where has almost every policy the gov't implemented begun the states
what do states often take initiative on typically federal policies that they disagree with (minimum wage, paris climate agreement)
how do states differ in terms of public education differ in resources they can/ will devote
what is a prime reflection of diversity of public policy in the states death penalty
what are some negative effects of diversity in policy state may be leery of providing generous welfare as it can strain the state by attracting poor people from other states
what does the federal system do to the centralization of politics decentralizes politics with a representative democracy
how does federalism reduce conflict at national level ensures that most disputes are handled within the state
what does federalism provide more opportunities for participation in politics
how does federalism affect the elections for political parties allows them to still hold power even if they lose at the national level and lead to a more peaceful transition of power
how can decentralization of politics be un-advantageous it is possible for the candidate who wins the popular vote to lose the election because of the electoral colelge
what are 2 examples of the popular vote losing gore vs. bush/ clinton vs. trump
what can federalism thwart national majority support of policies (i.e. segregation in the south was put in place by state/ local gov't which complicated national gov't efforts to end it)
what is the opposite of federalism in terms of states dealing with issues parliament
where is the majority better heard state level
what is a direct democracy/ example everybody votes on everything/ mayflower compact
what is an indirect democray, republic, modern constitutional monarchy, representative democracy/ example elect politicians to represent the people/ USA
what is a traditional monarchy/ example single hereditary monarch rules/ saudi arabia
what is a theocracy/ example religious group rules/ iran
what is a dictatorship/ example 1 powerful person controls everything and makes quick decisions(not hereditary)/ zimbabwe
what is an oligarchy, oligopoly small group of people (elites) rule
what are 4 types of oligarchies 1. totalitarian state
2. communist state
3. aristocratic stae
4. ethnic minority state
what is a totalitarian state/ example run by political organization (not party)/ north korea
what is a communist state/ example based on communist party (no capitalism/ public sharing)/ china or cuba
what is an aristocratic state/ example run by wealthy families/ ancient greece
what is an ethnic minority state belongs/ run by a single ethnic minority
what is a presidential republic/ example president is actively involved in gov't/ usa
what is a parliamentary republic/ example executive branch draws power from legislature/ india
what is a federal republic/ example federation of states with republican central gov't/ usa
what is a unitary republic/ example central gov't supreme/ dominican republic
what happened as the country became more industrialized many interests asked the national gov't to restrain monopolies and encourage open competition
what group of people found their interests better heard at state level business interests
why do citizens often turn to the national gov't for problems/ assistance a problem or policy often requires the authority and resources of the national gov't
what percent of gdp does the gov't spend 25%
the proportion of the us gdp spent by state and local gov't has shown what trend increased but not nearly as fast as the national gov't
how much of gdp is spent by state/ local gov'ts 12%
how has the responsibilities of the state/ national gov't changed the state gov't still carries out all the functions it always has while the national gov't has taken on more responsibilities
what percent of federal/ local funds come from the national gov't 25%
how much of federal spending does aid to state and local gov't take up 18%
what did the supreme court rule in saenz v. roe california could not require citizens to wait a year before getting welfare benefits
what did the supreme court rule in printz v. united states voided the requirement that local gov't officials had to conduct background checks before citizens bought guns
what was marbury vs. madison 1803 supreme court established judicial review