Nutrition Chapter 1

Term Definition
Nutrients Life-sustaining chemicals in food that are necessary for proper body functioning.
Nutrition Study of nutrients and how the body uses these substances.
Diet Usual pattern of food choices
Risk factor Personal characteristic that increases a person's chances of developing a disease.
Lifestyle Way of living that includes diet, physical activity habits, use of tobacco and alcohol, and other typical patterns of behavior.
Organic nutrients Nutrients that have carbon in their chemical structures.
Carbohydrates Source of energy (most forms)
Lipids Source of energy (fats), cellular development, physical growth and development, regulation of body processes, absorption of fat-soluble vitamins.
Proteins Production of structural and functional components; cellular development, growth, and maintenance; regulation of body processes; immune function; fluid balance; source of energy.
Vitamins Regulation of body processes, maintenance of immune function, production of maintenance of tissues, protection against agents that can daman cellular components.
Minerals Regulation of body processes, including fluid balance; formation of certain chemical messengers; structural and functional components of various substances and tissues; necessary for physical growth, maintenance.
Water Maintenance of fluid balance, regulation of body temperature, elimination of wastes, transportation of substance, participant in many chemical reactions.
Cell Smallest living functional unit in an organism.
Metabolism Total of all chemical processes that take place in living cells.
Kilocalorie (kcal) or Calorie Unit of measuring food energy.
Macronutrients Nutrients needed in gram amounts daily and that provide energy; carbohydrates, proteins, and fats.
Micronutrients Vitamins and minerals.
Essential nutrient Nutrient that must be supplied by food.
Deficiency disease State of health that occurs when a nutrient is missing from the diet.
Phytochemicals Substances made by plants that are not nutrients but maybe healthful.
Antioxidant Substance that protects their components damaged or destroyed buy free radicals.
Free radicals Chemically unstable factors that can damage or destroy cells.
Alpha-carontene, Beta-carotene, lutein, lycopene Phytochemical: ORANGE, RED, YELLOW FRUITS AND VEGTABLES; EGG YOLKS. May reduce risk of certain cancers and macular degeneration (cause of blindness). The body can convert alpha- and beta- carotene into vitamin A.
Quercetin Phytochemical: APPLES, TEA, RED WINE, ONIONS, OLIVES, RASPBERRIES, COCOA. Antioxidant activity, may inhibit cancer growth, may reduce risk of heart disease.
Anthocyanins Phytochemical: RED, BLUE, OR PURPLE FRUITS AND VEGTABLES. Antioxidant activity, may inhibit cancer growth, may reduce risk of heart disease.
Resveratrol Phytochemical: RED WINE, PURPLE GRAPES AND GRAPE JUICE, DARK CHOCOLATE, COCOA. Antioxidant activity, may inhibit cancer growth, may reduce risk of heart disease.
Isoflavonoids Phytochemical: SOY BEANS AND OTHER LEGUMES. Antioxidant activity, may inhibit cancer growth, may reduce risk of heart disease.
Sulfur Compounds Phytochemical: GARLIC, ONIONS, LEEKS, BROCCOLI, CAULIFLOWER, CABBAGE, KALE, BOK CHOY, COLLARD AND MUSTARD GREENS. Antioxidant activity, may inhibit cancer growth, may reduce risk of heart disease.
Sapoins Phytochemical: CHICKPEAS, BEANS, OATS, GRAPES, OLIVES, SPINACH, GARLIC, QUINOA. Antioxidant activity, may inhibit cancer growth, may reduce risk of heart disease.
Caffeine Phytochemical: COFFEE, TEA, COCOA. Stimulant effects.
Capsaicin Phytochemical: Chili peppers. May provide some pain relief.
Dietary Supplement Product that contains a vitamin, a mineral, an herb or other plant product, an amino acid, or a dietary substance that supplements the diet.
Malnutrition State of health that occurs when the body is improperly nourished.
Empty Calories Calories from unhealthy fats, added sugars, and/or alcohol.
Nutrient- dense Describes foods, or beverages that supply more beneficial nutrients in relation to total calories.
Energy Density Energy Value of a food in relation to the foods weight.
Variety Including different foods from each food group.
Moderation Consuming foods in reasonable amounts.
Balance Matching calorie intake with calorie expenditure to maintain a healthy weight.