FK Easy Stuff Foundational knowledge Easy STuff

Term Definition
Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) A Scientific Approach for discovering environmental variables that reliably influence socially significant behavior and for developing a technology of behavior change that is practical and applicable. ABA is an Evidence-Based Science
Science A systematic approach for seeking and organizing knowledge about the natural world. Science is based on DETERMINISM.
Purpose of Science To achieve a thorough understanding of the phenomena under study. In ABA, the phenomena are SOCIALLY IMPORTANT BEHAVIORS.
3 Levels of Scientific Understanding Description, Prediction, Control
Description Systematic observations can be quantified and classified (not casual explanations) EX: # of praise statements made by teachers in a classroom.
Prediction (AKA: Correlation, Covariation) Two events may occur regularly at the same time. This does not necessarily mean one causes the other. EX: when the weather is hot, there are more drowning deaths but we can not assume that hot weather causes drowning deat
Control (AKA: Causation) Functional Relation , THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING , Experimental demonstration that manipulating one event (IV) results in another event (DV)
6 Attitudes of Science Determination, Empiricism, Experimentation, Replication, Parsimony, Philosophical Doubt
Determinism Cause and Effect, Lawfulness: If/Then Statements, The world is orderly and predictable
Empiricism FACTS, Experimental, data based scientific approach, drawing upon observation and experience, Requires objective quantification and detailed description of events
Experimentation (AKA: Experimental Analysis) Requires manipulating variables so as to see the effects on the DV. Requires all variables be controlled except the DV
Replication Repeating experiments, the method scientists use to determine the RELIABILITY and usefulness of their findings. How scientists discover their mistakes
Parsimony The simplest theory. All simple and logical explanations must be ruled out before considering more complex explanations
Philosophical Doubt Having healthy skepticism and a critical eye about the results and studies and your work with clients
7 Dimensions of ABA outlined in the FIRST edition of JABA in 1968 BATCAGE: Behavioral, Applied, Technological, Conceptually Systematic, Analytical, Generality, Effective
Behavioral Observable events, the behavior one chooses must be the behavior in need of improvement. Behavior must be measureable
Applied ABA improves Socially Significant Behavior and improves everyday life of clients
Technological Defines procedures clearly and in detail so they are replicable (like a recipe)
Conceptually Systematic All procedures used should be tied to the basic principles of Behavioral Analysis from which they were derived
Analytical (AKA: Functional Relation, Experimentation, Control, Causation) A functional relationship is demonstrated
Generality (AKA: Generalization) extends behavior change across time, settings, or other behaviors.
Effective Improves behavior in a practical manner, not simply making a change that is statistically significant
Mentalism Terminology Hypothetical Construct, Explanatory Fiction, Circular Reasoning
Mentalism An approach to explaining behavior that assumes an inner dimension exists and causes behavior. Traditional psychology has been and continues to be dominated by mentalism (Freud, talk therapy, etc.. (AKA: Spiritual, Psychic, Subjective, Feelings
Hypothetical Construct (AKA: Imaginary Contructs) Presumed, but unobserved, entities. EX: Free will, readiness, unobservable storage and retrieval mechanisms for memory, information processing, etc.
Explanatory Fictions Fictitious variables that are another name for observable behavior. They contribute nothing to an understanding of the variables responsible for maintaining behavior. Words associated with it include "knows", "wants", "figures out"
Circular Reasoning The cause and effect are both inferred from the same information. EX: "He cried because he felt sad." The sad feeling and the crying are both inferred from the same depressive behaviors.
Behaviorism The philosophy of the science of behavior. Emerged in the early 20th century as a reaction to "mentalistic" psychology, which often had difficulty making predictions that could be tested using experimental methods. Environmental explanation of Behavior
4 Branches of Behavior Analysis CASE: Conceptual Analysis of Behavior , ABA, Behavior Service Delivery, Experimental Analysis of Behavior (EAB)
Conceptual Analysis of Behavior (AKA: Behaviorism) Examines philosophical, theoretical, historical, and methodological issues
ABA refers to behavior analysts that asses, monitor, analyze, revise (if needed) and communicate the effects of their work. Create behavior-change tactics that can increase behavior and maintain behavior, generalize behavior, reduce problem behavior, etc..
Behavior Service Delivery refers to the many people in various fields of work implementing ABA within their professions such as education, sports, psychology, job safety, animal training, etc..
Experimental Analysis of Behavior AKA: EAB, research on basic processes and principles and conducted mainly in labs.
Pavlov Classical Conditioning: Respondent conditioning with dogs. 1906 Pavlov published first stuy
Watson Methadological Behaviorism: Stimulus-Response Behaviorism- 1913 first described behaviorism as a formal system. 1920- "Little Albert" experiment white rat and loud noise.
Methadological Behaviorism Only looks at publicly observable events. We should study behavior by direct observation of the relationship between the environment (S) and the response (R) they bring about.
BF Skinner Radical Behaviorism- states that private events are a part of the understanding of behavior.
2 Primary types of behavior Respondent and Operant
Respondent behavior AKA: Reflex, Reflexive Relations, Unconditioned Stimulus-Unconditioned Response- (US-UR)involuntary and something someone does not need to learn
Elicited "brought out" by stimuli that immediately precede them (i.e. antecedent stimuli)
Habituation when the eliciting stimulus is presented repeatedly over a short time, the strength of the respondent behavior diminishes. (EX: A bright light shone in the eyes repeatedly makes a pupil contraction lessen)
Phylogenic/ Phylogeny behavior that is inherited. RESPONDENT BEHAVIOR is due to PHYLOGENIC history
Respondent conditioning AKA: Classical Conditioning: Ivan Pavlov and the salivating dog with the bell. This is when new stimuli acquire the ability to elicit respondents.
US Unconditioned Stimulus
UR Unconditioned Response
NS Neutral Stimulus
CR Conditioned Response
CS Conditioned Stimulus
Operant Behavior (AKA: S-R-S) EMIT/EVOKE- any behavior whose probability of occurrence is determined by it's history of consequences. not determined by topography but by function and includes both reinforcement and punishment.
Adaptation Reductions in responding evoked by an antecedent stimulus over repeated or prolonged presentations
Ontogenic/Ontogeny Learning that results from an organism's interaction with his/her environment. Operant behavior is due to Ontogenic behavior
Operant Contingency (AKA: 3 term contingency, ABC) The occasion for a response (Sd) the response, and the outcome of the response, Antecedent, Behavior and Consequence
Contiguity (AKA: Temporal Contiguity) When 2 stimuli occur close together in time, resulting in an association of those 2 stimuli. ex: Superstitious Behavior
Dead Man Test if a dead man can do it, it's not behavior
3 Principles of Behavior Reinforcement, Punishment and Extinction